## Schumpeter’s Innovation Theory of Trade Cycle

The innovation theory of trade cycles is associated with the name of Joseph Schumpeter. Schumpeter accepts Juglar’s statement that “the cause of depression is prosperity,” and gives his own view about the originating cause of the cycle. “Innovations in the industrial and commercial organization are virtually mainly the outcome of … read more

## Inter-temporal Price Discrimination

Two other closely related forms of price discrimination are important and widely practiced. The first of these is inter-temporal price discrimination: separating consumers with different demand functions into different groups by charging different prices at different points in time. The second is peak-load pricing: charging higher prices during peak periods … read more

## Properties of Good Estimator

Following are the small and large sample properties of a Good Estimator Small Sample Properties 1. Unbiased Estimator: Biased means the difference between the parameter’s true value and the estimator’s value. When the difference becomes zero then it is called Unbiased estimator. = 2. Best Estimator: An estimator is called … read more

Peak-load pricing also involves charging different prices at different points in time. Rather than capturing consumer surplus, however, the objective is to increase economic efficiency by charging consumers prices that are close to marginal cost. For some goods and services, demand peaks at particular times—for roads and tunnels during commuter … read more

## Chi-Square

Chi-Square is an important non-parametric test and as such, rigid assumptions are necessary regarding the type of population we require only the degree of freedom for using this test. Non- parametric chi-square test can be used  This test was developed by statistician “Karl Pearson”. As a test of goodness of … read more

## Probability Definitions

The term probability has been interpreted in terms of four definitions : 1. Classical Definition of Probability: the classical definition states that if an experiment consists of ’’ outcomes that are mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and equally likely and  of them ate the favorable outcomes of an event A then the … read more

## Assumptions of Classical Linear Regression Model

Following are the assumptions underlying when we use method of Least Squares Assumption 1: Linear regression model The regression model is linear in the parameters i.e., Assumption 2: values are fixed in repeated sampling Values taken by the regressor are considered fixed in repeated samples. More technically, is assumed to … read more

## Expected Values or Mathematical Expectations

The expected value, or mean, of a random variable is a measure of the central location for the random variable. The formula for the expected value of a discrete random variable X follows.  The expected value of a discrete random variable X can be written as i.e., Properties of Mathematical … read more

## Gauss – Markov Theorem / BLUE Properties

Given the assumptions of the classical linear regression model, the least-squares estimators, in the class of unbiased linear estimators, have minimum variance, that is, they are BLUE. In other words, the Gauss-Markov theorem holds the properties of Best Linear Unbiased Estimators. Following are some of the assumptions that should be … read more